When the Emirate of Granada, the last Islamic political entity on the Iberian peninsula, surrendered to the combined forces of Aragon and Castile in 1492, it did so under the terms of the Treaty of Granada, drawn up the previous year. Chief among that agreement’s terms were a series of guarantees for the emirate’s Muslim subjects. They were to be given safe passage to North Africa or, if they chose to stay, would be entitled to keep their property and their faith, to be governed according to Islamic law, and other concessions to religious tolerance. In short, they—as well as the other Muslim residents of the proto-Spanish kingdom—were allowed to go on being Muslim and promised little interference from their Christian sovereigns.
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